Physics majors early on learn to appreciate the role of symmetry in nature's scheme of things. The existence of antimatter is one such remarkable symmetry translation seen in nature involving the transposition of electric charge between oppositely charged particles. Thus, every known particle has a counterpart with opposite charge and/or spin (the antiparticles of the neutron, along with other neutral particles have only their spin reversed). A more subtle and complex symmetry translation is embodied in the hypothetical magnetic monopole in which the roles of the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field are transposed. Such particles, in theory, would carry quantitized units of magnetic charge, and would possess an electric dipole field with the same configuration as the dipole magnetic field seen in ordinary electrically charged particles. There seems to be a trend here, and the curious student might well ask if even higher order symmetry translations are part and parcel of nature's inventory of possibilities. If the intrinsic charge of a field, and the components of a field, may interchange their roles, might not some of the four fundamental fields of nature - the electromagnetic, strong, weak, and gravitational - also be able to exchange roles with one another, leading to the creation of novel forms of matter with extraordinary characteristics? This makes all the more sense in light of the widely held assumption that all these forces are manifestations of a single underlying superforce. Of nature's four forces two have infinite range, while the other two are confined to the nucleus. It seems natural to suppose that any role interchange would preferentially occur between fields within the same category. The electromagnetic and gravitational fields are both long range and fall off by the inverse square law, but otherwise exhibit quite different properties, not least of which is their enormous disparity in coupling strength. Every High School physics student learns that the electrostatic force between two stationary particles - say an electron and proton - is 39 orders of magnitude stronger than the gravitational force between them. Suppose you could switch the roles of these forces so that the gravitational force took on the role of the electrostatic force, and the electrostatic force acquired the role of gravity, how would particles with such a transposition of forces behave? The first Assuming Newton's equation for the force between two gravitating bodies is applicable here, the force of attraction or repulsion between our type of matter and gravitationally charged matter must be approximately proportional to the square root of the force of attraction between two electrically charged particles (or two gravitationally charged particles). To express it differently, it would be 19.5 orders of magnitude stronger than the force of gravity between two ordinary particles of matter. A charged G-particle would thus couple to ordinary matter 32 billion, billion times more strongly than ordinary matter to itself. For a neutral G-atom the gravitational Van deer Waals force would, undoubtedly, still be quite potent in relation to normal matter. Nevertheless, it would fall short of the normal Van deer Waals forces between molecules by a factor of 19.5 powers of ten. On further reflection, it's apparent that quantum particles possessing gravitational charge, as an analogue to electric charge, pose a major puzzle. The movement of ordinary electrically charged particles leads to the evolution of a magnetic field as described in Maxwell's equations. What then, would be the nature of the secondary field associated with the movement of gravitationally charged particles? On first blush it would seem that it would simply be a gravitational force. But that evidently is a flawed argument since by analogy electric and magnetic forces, while they are intimately connected, are quite distinct. For example, while two electric charges of opposite polarity will attract each other along the line connecting them, and two magnetic monopoles of opposing polarity will do likewise, the same would not be the case between a magnetic monopole and electric charge. However, there is a very sensible solution to this paradox, which is quite profound, especially if nature really allows such particles to exist. The train of logic goes like this: There is a symmetry inherent in both the gravitational field and electromagnetic field in our universe, that revolves around the speed of light. Any electromagnetic wave - radio wave, light wave, gamma ray - is constrained to the speed of light by the interplay of the Hermann Minkowski recognized the inseparable and unified nature of space and time in Einstein's Special Relativity, which he described as the space-time continuum. Space-time is spoken of as a four dimensional continuum, but in Minkowski's formulation the dimension of time enters into the equations of relativity on a very different basis than the three dimensions of space. The time component is always factored with the imaginary number Thus, even though we normally think of curved space-time associated with gravitation as a 4 dimensional entity, it could with equal justification be considered a 2 component We see therefore that gravity, like the electromagnetic field, can be treated as a two component From these arguments it follows that the electromagnetic field transforms into a ten component tensor field in G-matter, exactly like space-time is formulated in our universe. Space in a G-universe would acquire 'electric' characteristics. Time, in turn, would adopt a 'magnetic' character to it. In short, the fabric of space-time in a G-universe would have 'electric-magnetic' properties. How to interpret such concepts will be addressed later. For now, it's vitally important to emphasize that these perceptions of 'electric' space and 'magnetic' time are The issue of perspective is so important in this analysis that it has to be regarded as a fundamental axiom. Indeed, contrary to a basic tenet of Special Relativity, the laws of physics will In G-matter the space-time field (Einstein's field) becomes a local gauge field, exactly like Maxwell's electromagnetic field in our universe. Essentially space and time maintain separate, but interwoven roles in G-matter, and behave precisely like the electric and magnetic components in Maxwell's electromagnetic equations (to a G-person). A current of G-electrons in a length of wire made of G-matter would induce lines of The field transformation that leads to the existence of G-matter is assumed to be perfectly symmetrical. Therefore, for every normal particle there would be a corresponding G-particle which, to a person made of G-matter in a G-universe, would possess identical properties to the corresponding particle in our universe. In keeping with the convention adopted for the electromagnetic field the direction of the flux lines for the spatial field emanating from G-particles will flow from G-protons to G-electrons. The charge associated with these particles will be dubbed positive or negative spatial charge. Similarly, the flow direction of the temporal field (the equivalent of the magnetic field in electromagnetic theory), will flow from the corresponding north pole to the south pole of spatially charged particles. In spatially charged G-particles where the space field lines To further emphasize the exact correlation between the gravitotime field in G-matter and the electromagnetic field in normal matter, I thought an even more appropriate designation would be the Now we address the really tricky question - what is the operational meaning to a human observer of the spatial (length) and temporal components of the GC (length-time) field? We have already suggested that a diverging spatial field will mimic a repulsive gravity field, and a converging spatial field will mimic an attractive gravitational field. But this was an intuitive guess, and the challenge is to see if this result can be supported with more logical arguments. The possible properties of the spatial and temporal components of the GC field to a human observer can be narrowed down somewhat by recourse to symmetry principles. In particular, we know that both the electric and magnetic components of the electromagnetic field are bipolar. We should therefore expect the same property in both the spatial and temporal components of the GC field. In the case of the temporal (chronetic) component of the GC field bipolarity must logically imply two temporal directions of flow; that is, into the future, as well as into the past. It seems self evident that a bipolar temporal field could accommodate this behavior in two ways. One way would be for each equipotential cross section of the field to correspond to a fixed moment in time. Consequently, the closer a test probe of ordinary matter approached a chronetic field source the further into the past or future the test probe would be shifted. A chronetic field of one polarity would shift test objects made of normal matter into the future, while a chronetic field of the other polarity would shift test objects into the past. As with a magnetic field (or electric field) the polarity of the chronetic field is to be defined by whether the field lines are diverging or converging (in the case of a uniform chronetic field, like in the middle of a solenoid, there must be a stasis effect - but more on that later). It's important to realize that test objects immersed in these fields would be shifted into The other interpretation would be for each equipotential cross section of a bipolar chronetic field to correspond to a particular degree of temporal expansion or contraction in either the forward or reverse temporal directions (traditionally the word Having the degree of temporal expansion or contraction be dependant on the magnitude of the field source is more in the spirit of relativity, where a gravitational field slows time to an extent proportional to the strength of the gravity field. Important differences between gravitational time dilation and a bipolar chronetic field are that the latter would accelerate time as well as slow it, and in two temporal directions. Also, in a bipolar field there must, in principle, be an intermediate region (or null plane) where the passage of time stops altogether, or is frozen. In practice, this null plane would always be shifted off the physical centerline between two opposite chronetic charges, by the preexisting state of the space-time continuum of our universe at a particular location. Another major difference is that a chronetic field would possess an intrinsic strength some thirty-two billion, billion times stronger than gravitational time dilation. Further clarification of the properties of chronetic fields should clearly be gained by understanding the significance of a solitary quantum of temporal charge for an observer in our universe (which through symmetry considerations should simultaneously lead to an associated definition for a quantum of spatial charge). A single quantum of temporal charge would be the gravitochronetic field equivalent of the hypothetical magnetic monopole in electromagnetic field theory. As with magnetic monopoles there would be two opposite polarities of temporal quanta, which we will designate as For the first interpretation of the meaning of a chronetic field where each equipotential slice is some moment in the future or the past, the extreme or ultimate state of such a field must correspond to the beginning of time, or the end of time in our universe. If we imagine a sphere centered on a chronetic monopole (which can be treated as a point charge in analogy with the electron), the magnitude of the field will be equal over the sphere's entire surface. If we shrink the sphere down in size until it is coincident with the point charge this equipotential field will rise to infinite intensity. In essence, a chronetic monopole of one polarity would correspond to a Extrapolating this concept to the spatial charges of a GC field, however, leads to seemingly illogical results. A spatial charge of one polarity must correspond to a |